Services for researchers

Our facilities provide a framework for diverse academic research. In addition to the latest operating room technology, our equipment includes, among other things, an adjustable hyperspectral camera, microscope eye tracking system, VR interfaces, operating video management system and high-power computers for applications.


The hyperspectral camera is a powerful tool for studying surgical anatomy. Our lightweight hyperspectral camera with customized brackets allows the technology to be utilized with surgical microscopes and endoscopic imaging systems.

The True Scope eye tracking prototype is a unique, patent pending optical solution for microsurgical eye tracking. The device is a combination of solid hardware and optics combined with a machine vision designed for efficient microsurgical work.

The effective 3D planning of surgical procedures helps the surgeon in the planning phase and supports decision-making during procedures. Our 3D design environment enables separate computing environments optimized for high performance optics and AI calculations.

Operative multimedia can be utilized in education and development work in many ways. Our laboratory is equipped with the high-tech Stryker iSuite system and an editing environment capable of handling the most demanding surgery scenarios.

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Microsurgical photonics

Machine vision and photonics are key tools in imaging-guided microsurgery. Techniques for spectral imaging, 3D modeling, and eye tracking improve the surgeon's ability to see complex areas of brain structures and tissues and to plan operations. Microsurgical photonics is an interdisciplinary field that combines computing, physics, optics and medical expertise.

Project funding

  • The Microsurgery Center of Eastern Finland 2019–2020 (EU)
  • Emil Aaltonen Foundation
  • European Regional Development Fund and Northern Savonia Fund
  • Academy of Finland



Inner Ear Research

The research team is developing customized solutions for the treatment of cochlear implant patients. The dimensions of the study include patient selection, surgical procedures, the safety of cochlear implants and the rehabilitation of patients.

Project funding

  • Academy of Finland
  • Government research funding

Grants for doctoral dissertation work

  • Finnish Cultural Foundation, North Savo Foundation
  • Finnish association of otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery
  • Korvakirurgiyhdistys, the ear surgeon association
  • KUH research foundation

Academic courses

The Microsurgery Center hosts international courses on surgical medical technology every year. The themes discussed are shown below.

UEF School of Computing Color in Science and Industry (COSI)

  1. Fluorescence Imaging Technology in Surgery and Influence of Indoor Illumination on its Performance
  2. Hyperspectral Inspection of Histological Slides
  3. Spectral Imaging of Ex-vivo Tissue:  Data Processing and Analysis 

International Master's Degree Programme in Information Technology (IMPIT) Medical ICT -courses

  1. Fusion of medical images and visualization in VR for pre-operative planning
  2. Eye tracking recording for VR glasses
  3. Synchronization of surgical videos and events
  4. Blending the spectral images with RBG videos
  5. Synchronization and analysis of biomarkers under noise and stress




Koskinen J, Huotarinen A, Elomaa AP, Zheng B, Bednarik R. Movement-level process modeling of microsurgical bimanual and unimanual tasks. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2022;17(2):305-314. doi:10.1007/s11548-021-02537-4

Koskinen J, Torkamani-Azar M, Hussein A, Huotarinen A, Bednarik R. Automated tool detection with deep learning for monitoring kinematics and eye-hand coordination in microsurgery. Comput Biol Med.2022;141:105121.doi:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.105121

Linder P, Iso-Mustajarvi M, Dietz A. A Comparison of ECochG With the Subjective Sound Perception During Cochlear Implantation Under Local Anesthesia-A Case Series Study. Otol Neurotol. 2022;43(5):e540-e547. doi:10.1097/MAO.0000000000003504

 Jani Koskinen, Wenjing He, Antti-Pekka Elomaa, Aku Kaipainen, Ahmed Hussein, Bin Zheng, Antti Huotarinen, Roman Bednarik,Utilizing Grasp Monitoring to Predict Microsurgical Expertise. J Surg Res. 2023;282:101-108. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2022.09.018

Puustinen, Sami. Koskinen, Jani. Vrzakova, Hana. Bartczak, Piotr. Hussein, Ahmed. Lehtonen, Samu. Elomaa, Antti-Pekka. (2020). Optimal Spectral Bands for Instrument Detection in Microscope-Assisted Surgery.  Proeedings: 2020 IEEE 33rd International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), 2020, 327-331. 10.1109/CBMS49503.2020.00068.

Timonen T, Iso-Mustajärvi M, Linder P, et al. Virtual reality improves the accuracy of simulated preoperative planning in temporal bones: a feasibility and validation study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2021;278(8):2795-2806. doi:10.1007/s00405-020-06360-6

Puustinen S, Alaoui S, Bartczak P, et al. Spectrally Tunable Neural Network-Assisted Segmentation of Microneurosurgical Anatomy. Front Neurosci. 2020;14:640. Published 2020 Jun 30. doi:10.3389/fnins.2020.00640

Bartczak, P., Vrzakova, H., Bednarik, R., Iso-Mustajarvi, M., Hauta-Kasari, M., Jääskeläinen, J. E., ... & Elomaa, A. P. (2018, June). Spectral Video in Image-Guided Microsurgical Applications: Integrating Imaging Technology into the Clinical Environment and Ergonomic Considerations. In 2018 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS) (pp. 286-291). IEEE. See article [PDF]

Bartczak, P., Iso-Mustajarvi, M., Vrzakova, H., Bednarik, R., Fraunberg, M., & Elomaa, A. P. (2018, June). A Portable System for On-Site Medical Spectral Imaging: Pre-Clinical Development and Early Evaluation. In 2018 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS) (pp. 256-261). IEEE. See article [PDF]

Leppänen, T., Vrzakova, H., Bednarik, R., Kanervisto, A., Elomaa, A. P., Huotarinen, A., ... & Jääskeläinen, J. E. (2018, June). Augmenting Microsurgical Training: Microsurgical Instrument Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks. In 2018 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS) (pp. 211-216). IEEE. See article [PDF]

Bednarik, R., Bartczak, P., Vrzakova, H., Koskinen, J., Elomaa, A. P., Huotarinen, A., ... & von und zu Fraunberg, M. (2018, June). Pupil size as an indicator of visual-motor workload and expertise in microsurgical training tasks. In Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications (p. 60). ACM. See article [PDF]

Bednarik, R., Koskinen, J., Vrzakova, H., Bartczak, P., & Elomaa, A. P. (2018). Blink-Based Estimation of Suturing Task Workload and Expertise in Microsurgery. In Proceedings: 31st IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems-CBMS 2018. See article [PDF]

Eivazi, S., Hafez, A., Fuhl, W., Afkari, H., Kasneci, E., Lehecka, M., & Bednarik, R. (2017). Optimal eye movement strategies: a comparison of neurosurgeons gaze patterns when using a surgical microscope. Acta neurochirurgica, 159(6), 959-966. See article [PDF]

Afkari, H., Bednarik, R., Mäkelä, S., & Eivazi, S. (2016). Mechanisms for maintaining situation awareness in the micro-neurosurgical operating room. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 95, 1-14. See article [PDF]

Zheng, B., Jiang, X., Bednarik, R., & Atkins, M. S. (2016, October). Gaze characteristics of video watching in a surgical setting. In 2016 IEEE Second Workshop on Eye Tracking and Visualization (ETVIS) (pp. 11-15). IEEE. See article [PDF]

Eivazi, S., Bednarik, R., Leinonen, V., von und zu Fraunberg, M., & Jääskeläinen, J. E. (2015). Embedding an eye tracker into a surgical microscope: Requirements, design, and implementation. IEEE Sensors Journal, 16(7), 2070-2078. See article [PDF]

Jiang, X., Zheng, B., Bednarik, R., & Atkins, M. S. (2015). Pupil responses to continuous aiming movements. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 83, 1-11. See article [PDF]

Eivazi, S., Afkari, H., Bednarik, R., Leinonen, V., Tukiainen, M., & Jääskeläinen, J. E. (2015). Analysis of disruptive events and precarious situations caused by interaction with neurosurgical microscope. Acta neurochirurgica, 157(7), 1147-1154. See article [PDF]

Aarno Dietz, Michael Buschermöhle, Ville Sivonen, Tytti Willberg, Antti A Aarnisalo, Thomas Lenarz , Birger Kollmeier. (2015) Characteristics and International Comparability of the Finnish Matrix Sentence Test in Cochlear Implant Recipients. Int J Audiol, 54 Suppl 2, 80-7 See article [PDF]

Afkari, H., Eivazi, S., Bednarik, R., & Mäkelä, S. (2014, October). The potentials for hands-free interaction in micro-neurosurgery. In Proceedings of the 8th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Fun, Fast, Foundational (pp. 401-410). ACM. See article [PDF]

Jiang, X., Atkins, M. S., Tien, G., Bednarik, R., & Zheng, B. (2014, April). Pupil responses during discrete goal-directed movements. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2075-2084). ACM. See article [PDF]

Tien, G., Atkins, M. S., Jiang, X., Zheng, B., & Bednarik, R. (2014, March). Verbal gaze instruction matches visual gaze guidance in laparoscopic skills training. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (pp. 331-334). ACM. See article [PDF]

Aarno Dietz, Michael Buschermöhle, Antti A Aarnisalo, Annukka Vanhanen, Taneli Hyyrynen, Olli Aaltonen, Heikki Löppönen, Melanie A Zokoll, Birger Kollmeier. (2014) The Development and Evaluation of the Finnish Matrix Sentence Test for Speech Intelligibility Assessment. Acta Otolaryngol 134 (7), 728-37 See article [PDF]

Eivazi, S., Bednarik, R., Tukiainen, M., von und zu Fraunberg, M., Leinonen, V., & Jääskeläinen, J. E. (2012, March). Gaze behaviour of expert and novice microneurosurgeons differs during observations of tumor removal recordings. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (pp. 377-380). ACM. See article [PDF]

Hasnat, M. A., Parkkinen, J., Hauta-Kasari, M., Antikainen, J., Orava, J., von und zu Fraunberg, M., & Jääskeläinen, J. E. (2011). Spectral color reconstruction and target visualization of live tissue. In Scandinavian workshop on imaging food quality 2011, Ystad, May 27, 2011: Proceedings See article [PDF]

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